C++ – The simplest and neatest c++11 ScopeGuard

c++c++11exception-safetylambdascopeguard

I'm attempting to write a simple ScopeGuard based on Alexandrescu concepts but with c++11 idioms.

namespace RAII
{
    template< typename Lambda >
    class ScopeGuard
    {
        mutable bool committed;
        Lambda rollbackLambda; 
        public:

            ScopeGuard( const Lambda& _l) : committed(false) , rollbackLambda(_l) {}

            template< typename AdquireLambda >
            ScopeGuard( const AdquireLambda& _al , const Lambda& _l) : committed(false) , rollbackLambda(_l)
            {
                _al();
            }

            ~ScopeGuard()
            {
                if (!committed)
                    rollbackLambda();
            }
            inline void commit() const { committed = true; }
    };

    template< typename aLambda , typename rLambda>
    const ScopeGuard< rLambda >& makeScopeGuard( const aLambda& _a , const rLambda& _r)
    {
        return ScopeGuard< rLambda >( _a , _r );
    }

    template<typename rLambda>
    const ScopeGuard< rLambda >& makeScopeGuard(const rLambda& _r)
    {
        return ScopeGuard< rLambda >(_r );
    }
}

Here is the usage:

void SomeFuncThatShouldBehaveAtomicallyInCaseOfExceptions() 
{
   std::vector<int> myVec;
   std::vector<int> someOtherVec;

   myVec.push_back(5);
   //first constructor, adquire happens elsewhere
   const auto& a = RAII::makeScopeGuard( [&]() { myVec.pop_back(); } );  

   //sintactically neater, since everything happens in a single line
   const auto& b = RAII::makeScopeGuard( [&]() { someOtherVec.push_back(42); }
                     , [&]() { someOtherVec.pop_back(); } ); 

   b.commit();
   a.commit();
}

Since my version is way shorter than most examples out there (like Boost ScopeExit) i'm wondering what specialties i'm leaving out. Hopefully i'm in a 80/20 scenario here (where i got 80 percent of neatness with 20 percent of lines of code), but i couldn't help but wonder if i'm missing something important, or is there some shortcoming worth mentioning of this version of the ScopeGuard idiom

thanks!

Edit I noticed a very important issue with the makeScopeGuard that takes the adquire lambda in the constructor. If the adquire lambda throws, then the release lambda is never called, because the scope guard was never fully constructed. In many cases, this is the desired behavior, but i feel that sometimes a version that will invoke rollback if a throw happens is desired as well:

//WARNING: only safe if adquire lambda does not throw, otherwise release lambda is never invoked, because the scope guard never finished initialistion..
template< typename aLambda , typename rLambda>
ScopeGuard< rLambda > // return by value is the preferred C++11 way.
makeScopeGuardThatDoesNOTRollbackIfAdquireThrows( aLambda&& _a , rLambda&& _r) // again perfect forwarding
{
    return ScopeGuard< rLambda >( std::forward<aLambda>(_a) , std::forward<rLambda>(_r )); // *** no longer UB, because we're returning by value
}

template< typename aLambda , typename rLambda>
ScopeGuard< rLambda > // return by value is the preferred C++11 way.
makeScopeGuardThatDoesRollbackIfAdquireThrows( aLambda&& _a , rLambda&& _r) // again perfect forwarding
{
    auto scope = ScopeGuard< rLambda >(std::forward<rLambda>(_r )); // *** no longer UB, because we're returning by value
    _a();
    return scope;
}

so for completeness, i want to put in here the complete code, including tests:


#include <vector>

namespace RAII
{

    template< typename Lambda >
    class ScopeGuard
    {
        bool committed;
        Lambda rollbackLambda; 
        public:

            ScopeGuard( const Lambda& _l) : committed(false) , rollbackLambda(_l) {}

            ScopeGuard( const ScopeGuard& _sc) : committed(false) , rollbackLambda(_sc.rollbackLambda) 
            {
                if (_sc.committed)
                   committed = true;
                else
                   _sc.commit();
            }

            ScopeGuard( ScopeGuard&& _sc) : committed(false) , rollbackLambda(_sc.rollbackLambda)
            {
                if (_sc.committed)
                   committed = true;
                else
                   _sc.commit();
            }

            //WARNING: only safe if adquire lambda does not throw, otherwise release lambda is never invoked, because the scope guard never finished initialistion..
            template< typename AdquireLambda >
            ScopeGuard( const AdquireLambda& _al , const Lambda& _l) : committed(false) , rollbackLambda(_l)
            {
               std::forward<AdquireLambda>(_al)();
            }

            //WARNING: only safe if adquire lambda does not throw, otherwise release lambda is never invoked, because the scope guard never finished initialistion..
            template< typename AdquireLambda, typename L >
            ScopeGuard( AdquireLambda&& _al , L&& _l) : committed(false) , rollbackLambda(std::forward<L>(_l))
            {
                std::forward<AdquireLambda>(_al)(); // just in case the functor has &&-qualified operator()
            }


            ~ScopeGuard()
            {
                if (!committed)
                    rollbackLambda();
            }
            inline void commit() { committed = true; }
    };


    //WARNING: only safe if adquire lambda does not throw, otherwise release lambda is never invoked, because the scope guard never finished initialistion..
    template< typename aLambda , typename rLambda>
    ScopeGuard< rLambda > // return by value is the preferred C++11 way.
    makeScopeGuardThatDoesNOTRollbackIfAdquireThrows( aLambda&& _a , rLambda&& _r) // again perfect forwarding
    {
        return ScopeGuard< rLambda >( std::forward<aLambda>(_a) , std::forward<rLambda>(_r )); // *** no longer UB, because we're returning by value
    }

    template< typename aLambda , typename rLambda>
    ScopeGuard< rLambda > // return by value is the preferred C++11 way.
    makeScopeGuardThatDoesRollbackIfAdquireThrows( aLambda&& _a , rLambda&& _r) // again perfect forwarding
    {
        auto scope = ScopeGuard< rLambda >(std::forward<rLambda>(_r )); // *** no longer UB, because we're returning by value
        _a();
        return scope;
    }

    template<typename rLambda>
    ScopeGuard< rLambda > makeScopeGuard(rLambda&& _r)
    {
        return ScopeGuard< rLambda >( std::forward<rLambda>(_r ));
    }

    namespace basic_usage
    {
        struct Test
        {

            std::vector<int> myVec;
            std::vector<int> someOtherVec;
            bool shouldThrow;
            void run()
            {
                shouldThrow = true;
                try
                {
                    SomeFuncThatShouldBehaveAtomicallyInCaseOfExceptionsUsingScopeGuardsThatDoesNOTRollbackIfAdquireThrows();
                } catch (...)
                {
                    AssertMsg( myVec.size() == 0 && someOtherVec.size() == 0 , "rollback did not work");
                }
                shouldThrow = false;
                SomeFuncThatShouldBehaveAtomicallyInCaseOfExceptionsUsingScopeGuardsThatDoesNOTRollbackIfAdquireThrows();
                AssertMsg( myVec.size() == 1 && someOtherVec.size() == 1 , "unexpected end state");
                shouldThrow = true;
                myVec.clear(); someOtherVec.clear();  
                try
                {
                    SomeFuncThatShouldBehaveAtomicallyInCaseOfExceptionsUsingScopeGuardsThatDoesRollbackIfAdquireThrows();
                } catch (...)
                {
                    AssertMsg( myVec.size() == 0 && someOtherVec.size() == 0 , "rollback did not work");
                }
            }

            void SomeFuncThatShouldBehaveAtomicallyInCaseOfExceptionsUsingScopeGuardsThatDoesNOTRollbackIfAdquireThrows() //throw()
            {

                myVec.push_back(42);
                auto a = RAII::makeScopeGuard( [&]() { HAssertMsg( myVec.size() > 0 , "attempt to call pop_back() in empty myVec"); myVec.pop_back(); } );  

                auto b = RAII::makeScopeGuardThatDoesNOTRollbackIfAdquireThrows( [&]() { someOtherVec.push_back(42); }
                                    , [&]() { HAssertMsg( myVec.size() > 0 , "attempt to call pop_back() in empty someOtherVec"); someOtherVec.pop_back(); } );

                if (shouldThrow) throw 1; 

                b.commit();
                a.commit();
            }

            void SomeFuncThatShouldBehaveAtomicallyInCaseOfExceptionsUsingScopeGuardsThatDoesRollbackIfAdquireThrows() //throw()
            {
                myVec.push_back(42);
                auto a = RAII::makeScopeGuard( [&]() { HAssertMsg( myVec.size() > 0 , "attempt to call pop_back() in empty myVec"); myVec.pop_back(); } );  

                auto b = RAII::makeScopeGuardThatDoesRollbackIfAdquireThrows( [&]() { someOtherVec.push_back(42); if (shouldThrow) throw 1; }
                                    , [&]() { HAssertMsg( myVec.size() > 0 , "attempt to call pop_back() in empty someOtherVec"); someOtherVec.pop_back(); } );

                b.commit();
                a.commit();
            }
        };
    }
}

Best Solution

Even shorter: I don't know why you guys insist on putting the template on the guard class.

#include <functional>

class scope_guard {
public: 
    template<class Callable> 
    scope_guard(Callable && undo_func) try : f(std::forward<Callable>(undo_func)) {
    } catch(...) {
        undo_func();
        throw;
    }

    scope_guard(scope_guard && other) : f(std::move(other.f)) {
        other.f = nullptr;
    }

    ~scope_guard() {
        if(f) f(); // must not throw
    }

    void dismiss() noexcept {
        f = nullptr;
    }

    scope_guard(const scope_guard&) = delete;
    void operator = (const scope_guard&) = delete;

private:
    std::function<void()> f;
};

Note that it is essential that the cleanup code does not throw, otherwise you get in similar situations as with throwing destructors.

Usage:

// do step 1
step1();
scope_guard guard1 = [&]() {
    // revert step 1
    revert1();
};

// step 2
step2();
guard1.dismiss();

My inspiration was the same DrDobbs article as for the OP.


Edit 2017/2018: After watching (some of) Andrei's presentation that André linked to (I skipped to the end where it said "Painfully Close to Ideal!") I realized that it's doable. Most of the time you don't want to have extra guards for everything. You just do stuff, and in the end it either succeeds or rollback should happen.

Edit 2018: Added execution policy which removed the necessity of the dismiss call.

#include <functional>
#include <deque>

class scope_guard {
public:
    enum execution { always, no_exception, exception };

    scope_guard(scope_guard &&) = default;
    explicit scope_guard(execution policy = always) : policy(policy) {}

    template<class Callable>
    scope_guard(Callable && func, execution policy = always) : policy(policy) {
        this->operator += <Callable>(std::forward<Callable>(func));
    }

    template<class Callable>
    scope_guard& operator += (Callable && func) try {
        handlers.emplace_front(std::forward<Callable>(func));
        return *this;
    } catch(...) {
        if(policy != no_exception) func();
        throw;
    }

    ~scope_guard() {
        if(policy == always || (std::uncaught_exception() == (policy == exception))) {
            for(auto &f : handlers) try {
                f(); // must not throw
            } catch(...) { /* std::terminate(); ? */ }
        }
    }

    void dismiss() noexcept {
        handlers.clear();
    }

private:
    scope_guard(const scope_guard&) = delete;
    void operator = (const scope_guard&) = delete;

    std::deque<std::function<void()>> handlers;
    execution policy = always;
};

Usage:

scope_guard scope_exit, scope_fail(scope_guard::execution::exception);

action1();
scope_exit += [](){ cleanup1(); };
scope_fail += [](){ rollback1(); };

action2();
scope_exit += [](){ cleanup2(); };
scope_fail += [](){ rollback2(); };

// ...