Java – PriorityQueue/Heap Update

heapjavapriority-queue

Does Java have an easy way to reevaluate a heap once the priority of an object in a PriorityQueue has changed? I can't find any sign of it in Javadoc, but there has to be a way to do it somehow, right? I'm currently removing the object then re-adding it but that's obviously slower than running update on the heap.

Best Solution

You might need to implement such a heap yourself. You need to have some handle to the position of the item in the heap, and some methods to push the item up or down when its priority has changed.

Some years ago I wrote such a heap as part of a school work. Pushing an item up or down is an O(log N) operation. I release the following code as public domain, so you may use it in any way you please. (You might want to improve this class so that instead of the abstract isGreaterOrEqual method the sort order would rely on Java's Comparator and Comparable interfaces, and also would make the class use generics.)

import java.util.*;

public abstract class Heap {

    private List heap;

    public Heap() {
        heap = new ArrayList();
    }

    public void push(Object obj) {
        heap.add(obj);
        pushUp(heap.size()-1);
    }

    public Object pop() {
        if (heap.size() > 0) {
            swap(0, heap.size()-1);
            Object result = heap.remove(heap.size()-1);
            pushDown(0);
            return result;
        } else {
            return null;
        }
    }

    public Object getFirst() {
        return heap.get(0);
    }

    public Object get(int index) {
        return heap.get(index);
    }

    public int size() {
        return heap.size();
    }

    protected abstract boolean isGreaterOrEqual(int first, int last);

    protected int parent(int i) {
        return (i - 1) / 2;
    }

    protected int left(int i) {
        return 2 * i + 1;
    }

    protected int right(int i) {
        return 2 * i + 2;
    }

    protected void swap(int i, int j) {
        Object tmp = heap.get(i);
        heap.set(i, heap.get(j));
        heap.set(j, tmp);
    }

    public void pushDown(int i) {
        int left = left(i);
        int right = right(i);
        int largest = i;

        if (left < heap.size() && !isGreaterOrEqual(largest, left)) {
            largest = left;
        }
        if (right < heap.size() && !isGreaterOrEqual(largest, right)) {
            largest = right;
        }

        if (largest != i) {
            swap(largest, i);
            pushDown(largest);
        }
    }

    public void pushUp(int i) {
        while (i > 0 && !isGreaterOrEqual(parent(i), i)) {
            swap(parent(i), i);
            i = parent(i);
        }
    }

    public String toString() {
        StringBuffer s = new StringBuffer("Heap:\n");
        int rowStart = 0;
        int rowSize = 1;
        for (int i = 0; i < heap.size(); i++) {
            if (i == rowStart+rowSize) {
                s.append('\n');
                rowStart = i;
                rowSize *= 2;
            }
            s.append(get(i));
            s.append(" ");
        }
        return s.toString();
    }

    public static void main(String[] args){
        Heap h = new Heap() {
            protected boolean isGreaterOrEqual(int first, int last) {
                return ((Integer)get(first)).intValue() >= ((Integer)get(last)).intValue();
            }
        };

        for (int i = 0; i < 100; i++) {
            h.push(new Integer((int)(100 * Math.random())));
        }

        System.out.println(h+"\n");

        while (h.size() > 0) {
            System.out.println(h.pop());
        }
    }
}