Python – Class factory in Python

factorypython

I'm new to Python and need some advice implementing the scenario below.

I have two classes for managing domains at two different registrars. Both have the same interface, e.g.

class RegistrarA(Object):
    def __init__(self, domain):
        self.domain = domain

    def lookup(self):
        ...

    def register(self, info):
        ...

and

class RegistrarB(object):
    def __init__(self, domain):
        self.domain = domain

    def lookup(self):
        ...

    def register(self, info):
        ...

I would like to create a Domain class that, given a domain name, loads the correct registrar class based on the extension, e.g.

com = Domain('test.com') #load RegistrarA
com.lookup()

biz = Domain('test.biz') #load RegistrarB
biz.lookup()

I know this can be accomplished using a factory function (see below), but is this the best way of doing it or is there a better way using OOP features?

def factory(domain):
  if ...:
    return RegistrarA(domain)
  else:
    return RegistrarB(domain)

Best Solution

I think using a function is fine.

The more interesting question is how do you determine which registrar to load? One option is to have an abstract base Registrar class which concrete implementations subclass, then iterate over its __subclasses__() calling an is_registrar_for() class method:

class Registrar(object):
  def __init__(self, domain):
    self.domain = domain

class RegistrarA(Registrar):
  @classmethod
  def is_registrar_for(cls, domain):
    return domain == 'foo.com'

class RegistrarB(Registrar):
  @classmethod
  def is_registrar_for(cls, domain):
    return domain == 'bar.com'


def Domain(domain):
  for cls in Registrar.__subclasses__():
    if cls.is_registrar_for(domain):
      return cls(domain)
  raise ValueError


print Domain('foo.com')
print Domain('bar.com')

This will let you transparently add new Registrars and delegate the decision of which domains each supports, to them.