Python creating multiple instances for a single object/class


I'm using Python. I've read a bit about this and can't seem to wrap my mind around it. What I want to do is have a class called Potions with various potion objects in it. For now there's one potion, a simple HealthPotion. I want potions to be stackable in inventories and shop stocks. So I need an instance of the potion amount for an inventory and an instance for each shop stock that carries potions. The potion amount would be dynamic, for buying/selling and looting of potions. If someone could provide a basic explanation or examples that would be great.

Here's a snippet of what I have:

class Potion(Item):
    def __init__(self, name, desc, val, amt, type, effect, bound):
        Item.__init__(self, name, desc, val, amt, type, effect, bound) = name
        self.desc = desc
        self.val = val
        self.amt = amt
        self.type = 0 #Restorative
        self.effect = effect

   def use(self, you):
    #Use health potion
        you.hp_current += self.effect

#Format: Name, Description, Value, Amount, Type, Effect, Bound
HealthPotion = Potion('Health Potion', 'Restores 10 hit points when consumed', 10, 0, 
0, 10, 0)

Ideally the default amount would be set to 0 and I'd be able to declare how much a certain shop would start with in their stock. The inventory and shop stock is set up as an array that items are appended and removed to/from. I think I've got the logic down for how this would work, I just am having trouble with instancing the amounts.

EDIT: This is part of what I have in a buy method to see what would happen without using instances. It's pretty ugly and I discerned that you.inventory.y.amt will not work. y being the selected item from the list of items that is displayed in a "shop."

            x = selection - 1 #Item menu starts at 1. But arrays start at 0. So it takes user input and subtracts 1 to match the array.
            y = self.stock[x]

            if y.val <= you.coin:
                if y.amt == 0:
                    you.inventory.y.amt += 1
                    you.inventory.y.amt += 1;

                you.coin -= y.val
                self.funds += y.val

                if self.stock.y.amt > 1:
                    self.stock.y.amt -= 1
                    self.stock.y.amt -= 1

I've looked at examples like this:

class foo: 
a = 1 
i = foo() 
foo.a => 1 
i.a => 1 
i.a = "inst" 
foo.a => 1
i.a => "inst"

I'm wondering if I don't just create a second HealthPotion object, but that doesn't sound right to me. This example leads me to think otherwise. Maybe I just don't understand instancing.

"This would create first object of Employee class"

emp1 = Employee("Zara", 2000)

"This would create second object of Employee class"

emp2 = Employee("Manni", 5000)


Best Solution

I think you may have a slightly misguided concept of how classes and instances work. It might make more sense if you think about people instead.

Suppose we want to model people in our class hierarchy. For now, a person has to have a name, and if you ask them to speak they say their name:

class Person(object):
    def __init__(self, name): = name

    def speak(self):
        print "Hi! My name is {}.".format(self=self)

Then an instance of Person is, well, a person! For example:

>>> basil = Person("Basil")
>>> polly = Person("Polly")
>>> basil.speak()
Hi! My name is Basil.
>>> polly.speak()
Hi! My name is Polly.
>>> basil == polly

So an instance isn't a kind of person -- it really is just a person.

Can't you have a class whose instances are themselves classes, I hear you ask? Yes, of course you can! It's called a metaclass and is a very powerful tool in certain circumstances. Not, however, these.

Now, if you look at your situation, do you see the difference? A HealthPotion isn't a particular potion (say, this one in my pocket) -- it's a kind of potion. And the way we express that relationship is by class inheritance: define a new class HealthPotion which inherits from Potion. You can then have instances of these (in my pocket, in a store, wherever). If you want to use a potion, you use a specific one i.e. an instance of the class.