Oracle – How to choose and optimize oracle indexes?


I would like to know if there are general rules for creating an index or not.
How do I choose which fields I should include in this index or when not to include them?

I know its always depends on the environment and the amount of data, but I was wondering if we could make some globally accepted rules about making indexes in Oracle.

Best Solution

The Oracle documentation has an excellent set of considerations for indexing choices:

Update for 19c:


  • Consider indexing keys that are used frequently in WHERE clauses.

  • Consider indexing keys that are used frequently to join tables in SQL statements. For more information on optimizing joins, see the section "Using Hash Clusters for Performance".

  • Choose index keys that have high selectivity. The selectivity of an index is the percentage of rows in a table having the same value for the indexed key. An index's selectivity is optimal if few rows have the same value. Note: Oracle automatically creates indexes, or uses existing indexes, on the keys and expressions of unique and primary keys that you define with integrity constraints. Indexing low selectivity columns can be helpful if the data distribution is skewed so that one or two values occur much less often than other values.

  • Do not use standard B-tree indexes on keys or expressions with few distinct values. Such keys or expressions usually have poor selectivity and therefore do not optimize performance unless the frequently selected key values appear less frequently than the other key values. You can use bitmap indexes effectively in such cases, unless the index is modified frequently, as in a high concurrency OLTP application.

  • Do not index columns that are modified frequently. UPDATE statements that modify indexed columns and INSERT and DELETE statements that modify indexed tables take longer than if there were no index. Such SQL statements must modify data in indexes as well as data in tables. They also generate additional undo and redo.

  • Do not index keys that appear only in WHERE clauses with functions or operators. A WHERE clause that uses a function, other than MIN or MAX, or an operator with an indexed key does not make available the access path that uses the index except with function-based indexes.

  • Consider indexing foreign keys of referential integrity constraints in cases in which a large number of concurrent INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE statements access the parent and child tables. Such an index allows UPDATEs and DELETEs on the parent table without share locking the child table.

  • When choosing to index a key, consider whether the performance gain for queries is worth the performance loss for INSERTs, UPDATEs, and DELETEs and the use of the space required to store the index. You might want to experiment by comparing the processing times of the SQL statements with and without indexes. You can measure processing time with the SQL trace facility.