There are ways of doing this in optional parts of the standard, but a lot of databases support their own way of doing it.

A really good site that talks about this and other things is http://troels.arvin.dk/db/rdbms/#select-limit.

Basically, PostgreSQL and MySQL supports the non-standard:

```
SELECT...
LIMIT y OFFSET x
```

Oracle, DB2 and MSSQL supports the standard windowing functions:

```
SELECT * FROM (
SELECT
ROW_NUMBER() OVER (ORDER BY key ASC) AS rownumber,
columns
FROM tablename
) AS foo
WHERE rownumber <= n
```

(which I just copied from the site linked above since I never use those DBs)

*Update:* As of PostgreSQL 8.4 the standard windowing functions are supported, so expect the second example to work for PostgreSQL as well.

*Update:* SQLite added window functions support in version 3.25.0 on 2018-09-15 so both forms also work in SQLite.

Assuming you're joining on columns with no duplicates, which is a very common case:

An inner join of A and B gives the result of A intersect B, i.e. the inner part of a Venn diagram intersection.

An outer join of A and B gives the results of A union B, i.e. the outer parts of a Venn diagram union.

**Examples**

Suppose you have two tables, with a single column each, and data as follows:

```
A B
- -
1 3
2 4
3 5
4 6
```

Note that (1,2) are unique to A, (3,4) are common, and (5,6) are unique to B.

**Inner join**

An inner join using either of the equivalent queries gives the intersection of the two tables, i.e. the two rows they have in common.

```
select * from a INNER JOIN b on a.a = b.b;
select a.*, b.* from a,b where a.a = b.b;
a | b
--+--
3 | 3
4 | 4
```

**Left outer join**

A left outer join will give all rows in A, plus any common rows in B.

```
select * from a LEFT OUTER JOIN b on a.a = b.b;
select a.*, b.* from a,b where a.a = b.b(+);
a | b
--+-----
1 | null
2 | null
3 | 3
4 | 4
```

**Right outer join**

A right outer join will give all rows in B, plus any common rows in A.

```
select * from a RIGHT OUTER JOIN b on a.a = b.b;
select a.*, b.* from a,b where a.a(+) = b.b;
a | b
-----+----
3 | 3
4 | 4
null | 5
null | 6
```

**Full outer join**

A full outer join will give you the union of A and B, i.e. all the rows in A and all the rows in B. If something in A doesn't have a corresponding datum in B, then the B portion is null, and vice versa.

```
select * from a FULL OUTER JOIN b on a.a = b.b;
a | b
-----+-----
1 | null
2 | null
3 | 3
4 | 4
null | 6
null | 5
```

## Best Solution

The SQL 92 standard does not define a binary type. PostgreSQL has a

`bytea`

type, hsqldb has a`binary`

type.For a very portable (if not efficient) solution, convert the binary to base64, and store it in a string.